Chapter:4-Regression

  1. Simple Linear Regression
  2. Multiple Linear Regression
  3. Polynomial Regression
  4. Support Vector for Regression (SVR)
  5. Decision Tree Classification
  6. Random Forest Classification

Simple Linear Regression

Simple linear regression is an approach for predicting a response using a single feature.

  • h(x_i) represents the predicted response value for ith observation.
  • b_0 and b_1 are regression coefficients and represent y-intercept and slope of regression line respectively.
import numpy as np 
import matplotlib.pyplot as plt
def estimate_coef(x, y):
# number of observations/points
n = np.size(x)
# mean of x and y vector
m_x, m_y = np.mean(x), np.mean(y)
# calculating cross-deviation and deviation about x
SS_xy = np.sum(y*x) - n*m_y*m_x
SS_xx = np.sum(x*x) - n*m_x*m_x
# calculating regression coefficients
b_1 = SS_xy / SS_xx
b_0 = m_y - b_1*m_x
return(b_0, b_1)def plot_regression_line(x, y, b):
# plotting the actual points as scatter plot
plt.scatter(x, y, color = "m",
marker = "o", s = 30)
# predicted response vector
y_pred = b[0] + b[1]*x
# plotting the regression line
plt.plot(x, y_pred, color = "g")
# putting labels
plt.xlabel('x')
plt.ylabel('y')
# function to show plot
plt.show()
def main():
# observations
x = np.array([0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9])
y = np.array([1, 3, 2, 5, 7, 8, 8, 9, 10, 12])
# estimating coefficients
b = estimate_coef(x, y)
print("Estimated coefficients:\nb_0 = {} \
\nb_1 = {}".format(b[0], b[1]))
# plotting regression line
plot_regression_line(x, y, b)
if __name__ == "__main__":
main()
Estimated coefficients:
b_0 = -0.0586206896552
b_1 = 1.45747126437

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